Executive Order & Message to Congress re: Suspension of Litigation Against IranExecutive Order 12294 -- Suspension of Litigation Against Iran
February 24, 1981
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including Section 203 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702), Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, Section 1732 of Title 22 of the United States Code, and Section 301 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1631), in view of the continuing unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy and economy of the United States upon which were based the declarations of national emergency in Executive Order No. 12170, issued November 14, 1979, and in Executive Order No. 12211, issued April 17, 1980, in light of the agreement with the Government of Iran, as reflected in the Declarations of the Government of the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria dated January 19, 1981, relating to the release of United States diplomats and nationals being held as hostages and to the resolution of claims of United States nationals against Iran, in order to implement Article II of the Declaration of Algeria concerning the settlement of claims and to begin the process of normalization of relations between the United States and Iran, it is hereby ordered that as of the effective date of this Order:
Section 1. All claims which may be presented to the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal under the terms of Article II of the Declaration of the Government of the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria Concerning the Settlement of Claims by the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and all claims for equitable or other judicial relief in connection with such claims, are hereby suspended, except as they may be presented to the Tribunal. During the period of this suspension, all such claims shall have no legal effect in any action now pending in any court of the United States, including the courts of any state or any locality thereof, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, or in any action commenced in any such court after the effective date of this Order. Nothing in this action precludes the commencement of an action after the effective date of this Order for the purpose of tolling the period of limitations for commencement of such action.
Sec. 2. Nothing in this Order shall require dismissal of any action for want of prosecution.
Sec. 3. Suspension under this Order of a claim or a portion thereof submitted to the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal for adjudication shall terminate upon a determination by the Tribunal that it does not have jurisdiction over such claim or such portion.
Sec. 4. A determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal on the merits that a claimant is not entitled to recover on a claim shall operate as a final resolution and discharge of the claim for all purposes. A determination by the Tribunal that a claimant shall have recovery on a claim in a specified amount shall operate as a final resolution and discharge of the claim for all purposes upon payment to the claimant of the full amount of the award, including any interest awarded by the Tribunal.
Sec. 5. Nothing in this Order shall apply to any claim concerning the validity or payment of a standby letter of credit, performance or payment bond or other similar instrument.
Sec. 6. Nothing is this Order shall prohibit the assertion of a counterclaim or set-off by a United States national in any judicial proceeding pending or hereafter commenced by the Government of Iran, any political subdivision of Iran, or any agency, instrumentality, or entity controlled by the Government of Iran or any political subdivision thereof.
Sec. 7. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to employ all powers granted to me by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act and by 22 U.S.C.1732 to carry out the purposes of this Order.
Sec. 8. Executive Order Nos. 12276 through 12285 of January 19, 1981, are ratified.
This Order shall be effective immediately and copies shall be transmitted to the Congress.
The White House,
February 24, 1981.
[Filed with the Office of the Federal Register, 3:04 p.m., February 24, 1981]
Message to the Congress on the Suspension of Litigation Against Iran
February 24, 1981
To the Congress of the United States:
Pursuant to Section 204(b) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), 50 U.S.C. 1703(b), I have today exercised the authority granted by this Act to suspend certain litigation against Iran.
1. The circumstance necessitating the exercise of this authority is the implementation of the Claims Settlement Agreement between the United States and Iran. After a complete review of the agreements with Iran leading to the release of the hostages held by Iran I have decided to implement them.
This order is part of a series of actions necessary to resolve the national emergencies declared in Executive Order 12170 of November 14, 1979 and in Executive Order 12211 of April 17, 1980 and described in reports submitted to Congress under the IEEPA by President Carter on November 14, 1979; April 7, 1980; April 17, 1980; and January 19, 1981.
2. Although the hostages have been released, financial and diplomatic aspects of the crisis have not yet been resolved and continue to present an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy and economy of the United States.
3. Thus claims which may be presented to the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal are suspended in accordance with the terms of the attached Executive Order pursuant to the terms of the Claims Settlement Agreement, and my powers under Article II of the Constitution, Section 1732 of Title 22, known as the Hostage Act, and Section 203 of IEEPA.
I am also ratifying earlier Executive Orders signed by President Carter on January 19, 1981 to remove any doubt as to their effect, an issue that has been raised in recent litigation challenging them. In this connection I note that Executive Orders 12276 through 12285 were all signed by President Carter and made effective while he was still in office. The Report to Congress required by IEEPA dated January 19, 1981 indicates that some of the Executive Orders were not signed until the release of the hostages, an event that did not occur until after the end of his term. The report, which was prepared in advance, did not, because of the press of circumstances, reflect events precisely as they occurred and to that extent it stands corrected.
4. The present Executive Order is necessary for the United States to meet its obligations under the Claims Settlement Agreement to peacefully arbitrate certain claims.
5. The action is taken with respect to Iran for the reasons outlined above.
The White House,
February 24, 1981.